This account of eighteenth-century scientific publishing appeared as a chapter in Scientific Books, Libraries and Collectors (ed: A. Hunter) Aldershot and Vermont, 2000.
Eighteenth Century Scientific Publishing
Brian J Ford
The word 'scientist' was not in existence during the eighteenth century. This term, which was disliked by many (Faraday eschewed its use), did not appear in the literature until the mid nineteenth century. 'We need very much a name to describe a cultivator of science. I should incline to call him a scientist' wrote William Whewell (1794-1866) in The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences from the Earliest to the Present Time, (1840) London. The scientist de facto had appeared some two centuries earlier. Robert Hooke (1635-1703) published his great work Micrographia in London during 1665, and with its wide-ranging discourse and its vivid portrayals of microscopic structures it can be seen as the first science book we would recognise in today's terms.
The eighteenth century falls in the crucial period between the foundation of science and the recognition of the scientist. Prior to the eighteenth century, science was grasping towards the light, circumscribed by uncertainty and unsure of its processes and prospects. By the end of the eighteenth century, scientific publishing was adopting a recognisably modern approach and many of the books of that period can stand confidently alongside the works taking us into a new millennium. The names of the eighteenth century are an impressive catalogue of brave endeavour and novel insights: John Ray and Edward Jenner, Gilbert White and Erasmus Darwin, Lazzaro Spallanzani and George-Louis, Comte de Buffon, Lavoisier and Franklin; indeed the strides taken in the life sciences in eighteenth-century Europe set the biological revolution on its way [note 1]. Their energies fuelled the Age of Enlightenment, and their heritage lives with us today.
There must have been over 100,000 publications in the field during that century. If we restrict ourselves to a single discipline, medicine, we can see from the published catalogues how extensive are the holdings. John B Blake (1979) in A short title catalogue of Eighteenth Century printed books in the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, lists over 25,000 18th century titles. It is popular to imagine that little was originated in the United States at that time, but one summary published in 1977 was Early American Medical Imprints, 1668-1820, Arlington, Mass: Printers' Devil, contains over 2,100 books, pamphlets, theses and broadsides. The Catalogue of Printed books in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library gives further evidence. From Volume II, the catalogue covers books printed from 1641-1850. Volume II (1966) covers authors with initials A-E, (1966), London; it alone lists over 18,000 items. Volume III (1976) covers F-L, and Volume IV (1995) M-R. So far over 60,000 items have been listed, and the catalogue was not due to be completed prior to the new millennium .
If a single catalogue for a disciplinary library collection consumes so much endeavour, it is clear that we cannot gain a detailed over-view of the progress of the sciences through publication. Here I discuss some of the best-known authors and provide key examples of their oeuvres. Shorter summaries of other authors are offered, mostly as footnotes, and further examples are included of authors whom it is conventional to overlook, but whose work anticipated later developments. We will begin with the oldest preoccupation of civilised mankind, the documentation of the living world (botany, zoology, and medicine), move to microscopy, turn then to chemistry, on to physics and astronomy, and finally to mathematics.
This was the era of the ordering of science, when the romance of a ration- al mind emerged, and the concept of quantification was suddenly to blossom . One of the main thrusts of the eighteenth century was a move to classify and recording all the splendours of nature. As the century dawned, a major opus of a great of European naturalist was in process of publication. John Ray (1627-1705) was born in Black Notley, a small village to the south of Braintree, Essex. The son of a blacksmith and a medicinal herbalist, the young Ray studied at Cambridge and graduated in 1648. For many years he remained at Trinity, teaching Greek, mathematics and humanities. Ray took holy orders in 1660, but during 1662 he was instructed to endorse a document supporting the Act of Uniformity and when (as a Puritan) he refused to sign he was obliged to quit his University position. He was supported financially by his young pupils and colleagues at Cambridge, most notably Francis Willughby (1635-72) with whom he toured Europe between 1663 and 1665. In 1672, Willughby tragically died and Ray remained at the family home, as tutor to the Willughby children, and was supported by a bequest from his deceased friend. Following his marriage to a young governess he was obliged to leave the household and in 1678 they returned to the village of his birth where he remained for the remainder of his life. He had helped lay the foundations of ecology in his book The Widsom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation, published in 1691, in which he discussed the intereaction of species with their environment, and how their populations are controlled.
Many of Ray's other publications appeared during the seventeenth century, but his greatest work bridged the gap into the eighteenth. This was his master-work Historia generalis plantarum published between 1686 and 1704. It is the first great work of scientific botany, and in it he describes 18 600 plant species in three volumes containing a total of 2996 folio pages. The modern sense of the term 'species' was originally defined in 1690  and John Ray was the first naturalist to popularise that term in his taxonomical endeavours. Ray's prodigious opus is remarkable for containing no illustrations. In this work he set out a classification of plants in an ordered taxonomic sequence. Little wonder he was later to be dubbed 'the English Aristotle'. One of Ray's greatest friends was Mark Catesby (1683-1749) a self-taught artist who drew birds against a naturalistic background. He travelled widely in Virginia, the Carolinas and Bahamas, published an eleven-part Natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama islands in 1731-43. Later editions were edited by his friend George Edwards (1694-1773). Edwards was born in Stratford, Essex, and as a young apprentice tradesman he travelled widely in northern Europe. He contributed many papers to the Philosophical Transactions, and published several important works on natural history. His Natural history of birds [etc] was published in three parts between 1743-50, and then translated into French. Edwards' great four-part Natural history of uncommon birds, and some other rarer undescribed animals [etc] was published in 1743-51, with his Gleanings of natural history in three parts in 1758-64.
The eighteenth century was heralded by interest in the ordering and classification of plants. A pioneer, now often overlooked, was Joseph Pitton de Tournefort who was Professor of Botany at the Jardin Royal in Paris. He first published his élémens de botanique in 1694. In it he catalogued 8846 vascular plants, illustrated with 500 copper-plate engravings. It emerged in English, considerably revised in translation, as The compleat herbal in two volumes dated 1719 and 1730. It it we read: 'The Italians eat the [tomato] as we do cucumbers, with pepper, oil and salt; some eat them boiled: but considering their great moisture and coldness, the nourishment they afford must be bad.' The system of classification proposed by de Tournefort was widely accepted at the time. Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738) studied divinity and natural philosophy in the Netherlands, and graduated in medicine at the University of Haderwijk in 1693. He published Institutiones medicae in 1708 and Book of aphorisms in 1709; in 1710 he published his Index plantarum. The next title, Historia plantarum (1727), was a selection of his botanical lectures compiled and edited by his associates. His pupils next produced Institutiones et experimenta chemiae (1724) based on his chemistry lectures. Boerhaave did not approve of the result, and produced a corrected volume under the title Elementia chemiae (1732). Boerhaave also saw several other works through the publication process. For example, he oversaw the publication of Valliant's Discours sur la structure des fleurs (1718) at Leiden, and the same author's Botanicon Parisiense (1727) Amsterdam and Leiden.
Boerhaave assisted the father of modern taxonomy, Carl Linnaeus (1707-78), in his early work. Linnaeus dedicated his great work Genera plantarum (1737) to Boerhaave. He was born in Råshult, Sweden, one of two sons of Nils Linnaeus (1674-1748), a clergyman. The family name was coined from the Småland name for the linden tree Tilia microphylla, 'linn', an ancient specimen of which grew on the family's property. The Swedish universities were greatly impoverished at the time, and the young Linnaeus went to Harderwijke in the Netherlands to gain his doctor's degree. He moved from there to Uppsala where, in 1730, he was appointed Lecturer in Botany. Linnaeus introduced a system of classification of plants based on the sexual organs, and adopted for everyday use a form of nomenclature in which organisms were distinguished by a single specific name. This, the binomial system of nomenclature, has since been adopted throughout biology. His first great book was the Systema naturae regnum vegetabile, first published in 1735. The first edition contains only seven folio leaves, five of which are printed on both sides. In 1737 he published the first edition of the Genera Plantarum, and in 1753 the great Species Plantarum. The innovative first edition was published in facsimile in Berlin (1907) and Tokyo (1934). The Ray Society published a facsimile with a 176-page introduction by William Stearn (1957-59), and a further facsimile appeared at Nieuwkoop in 1964. A second, enlarged, edition appeared in Stockholm in 1762-63, and a corrected reprint (known as the 'third edition', though it has no other amendments) was published in Vienna. The move from lengthy descriptive Latin names towards a binomial system was promulgated by Linnaeus, originally as a means of economising on paper. Many of the names he coined, indicated in zoology by the abbreviated suffix 'Linn.', and in botany by 'L.', are still widely used by new-millennium taxonomists. 
Others were quick to follow in documenting the natural world. The French naturalist Michel Adanson (1727-1806), born at Aix-en-Provence, visited the West African state of Senegal in 1749 and made extensive collections of specimens. His work was published as Histoire naturelle du Sén&égal [etc] (1757) Paris, and later appeared in English as volume 16 of J. Pinkerton's General collection of . . . voyages [etc] (1814) London. Later he compiled an extensive two-volume work on taxonomy, Familles des Plantes (1763, 1764) Paris. His library and papers are now at the Hunt Botanical Library, which has published a bicentennial commemoration of his taxonomic endeavours .
One of the pupils of Linnaeus was Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828), who left Sweden in 1770 to travel widely in Japan and Java, the Cape and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), discovering some 1900 new species of plants. There are 293 publications in medicine and natural history to his name. Among the most notable are: Sera uti Europa, Africa, Asia färätadären 1770-79 (1788-93) Uppsala; the Flora Japonica (1784) Leipzig; Prodromus plantarum Capensium [etc] (1794-1800) Uppsala; and Flora Capensis (1807) Uppsala.
Taxonomy was actively pursued by the English physician William Withering (1741-99). His father was an apothecary of Wellington, Shropshire. The young Withering studied medicine at Edinburgh where he graduated in 1766. He took up the post of physician at the Stafford Infirmary where he came to know Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802). The founder of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, William Small (1734-75) died suddenly and Darwin proposed that Withering take over Small's medical practice in Birmingham. This brought him into active participation in the Lunar Society, where he met many contemporary men of science including Matthew Boulton (1728-1809), James Watt (1736-1819), Josiah Wedgewood (1730-95) and Joseph Priestley (1733-1804). Withering published the now rare volume An account of the foxglove, and some of its properties [etc] (1785) which established the value of Digitalis purpurea in the treatment of heart disease. Digitalin is still commercially obtained by extraction from a foxglove, D. lanata, to this day. Withering's greatest work was a version of the Linnaean system of classification, published as A botanical arrangement of all the vegetables naturally growing in the British Isles [etc] (1776) Birmingham, which ran through 14 editions, most published posthumously, with the last dated 1877. Withering also invented a low-power folding microscope in a wooden box, one of the most unsatisfactory designs of field microscope ever invented. It is figured in an engraving published in Volume 1 of the Botanical arrangement. Withering also published An Account of the Scarlet Fever and Sore Throat . . . particularly as it appeared in Birmingham in 1778, (1779) London. He was forced to leave Birmingham after expressing sympathy with the French Revolution (a similar fate befell Joseph Priestley) and he fled to Portugal during 1792-93. For many years he suffered from tuberculosis and withdrew from medicine to rest. In Portugal he published a little-known work A chemical analysis of the water at Caldas da Rainha (1795) Lisbon. His archives are preserved at the Birmingham Central Library, along with papers of Boulton and other philosophers of the English Midlands.
Other systems of classification were proposed. In France a major project was undertaken by Bernard de Jussieu (1699-1777) and carried further by his nephew Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748-1836) who published many monographs on plant families. The young Jussieu published, as his major opus, the Genera Plantarum of 1789. However, it was the Linnean system which triumphed, and which forms the basis of modern taxonomy. As the eighteenth century drew to a close, a luxurious work was published by Robert Thornton (1768-1837). Entitled New illustration of the sexual system of Carolus Linnaeus, it was published in parts between 1799 and 1807. The cost was more than Thornton could bear, and to help defray his expenses an Act of Parliament was passed to permit the holding of a national lottery for the benefit of the project. It failed to raise enough money, and Thornton was ruined by his extravagant publishing project.
In the laboratory, it was the physiology of the living plant which came to prominence during the eighteenth century. Stephen Hales (1677-1761) was born in Kent, and studied divinity at Cambridge for 13 years. Many of his Cambridge studies were carried out in cooperation with his close friend William Stukeley (1687-1765). They extended over animal anatomy, botany and chemistry. In 1709 he moved to Teddington on the Thames River, where he remained as a minister for the rest of his life. He established a laboratory at home, and carried out innumerable experiments which served to advance the study of physiology. His paper Vegetable staticks; or an account of some statical experiments on the sap in vegetables [etc] was read to the Royal Society in 1725, and published in 1727 as the first volume of his Statical essays, a book concerned with both plant and animal physiology. It is a small book illustrated with twenty detailed illustrations of his experimental methods. Hales, an inventor and pioneer of forced ventilation, also set plant physiology on a firm footing. He concluded, for example, that 'plants very probably draw through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air'. Hales also showed that sap does not obtain its power to rise purely through root pressure. He concluded that the 'force is not from the roots only, but must proceed from some power in the stem and branches'. The book, for all its diminutive nature, became popular, and was translated into French by Buffon (infra) in 1735. The second part of the Statical essays, published as Haemastaticks [etc] in 1733, translated into French by de Sauvages (1744). The two parts were jointly published in German (1748), Dutch (1750) and Italian (1750). Hales also published his Philosophical experiments [etc] (1739) and later wrote an account of ventilation of prisons, A description of ventilators and a treatise on ventilators in two parts (1743, 1750). Physiological experimentation was carried further by Jan Ingenhousz (1730-99) of Breda, Netherlands. He was stimulated by the tide of investigation (including Priestley's discovery of oxygen, q.v.) and during the summer of 1779 carried out 500 experiments concerning the respiration of green plants. He discovered photosynthesis, and proved that - in the presence of sunlight - green plants take up carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Ingenhousz went further, and elegantly demonstrated that green plants, in the dark, respire like animals (consuming oxygen, and giving off carbon dioxide). His researches are described in the Experiments upon vegetables, discovering their great power of purifying the common air in sunshine, but injuring it on the shade or at night (1779) London, and he followed it with On the nutrition of plants (1796). His collected writings, published as Nouvelles experiences et observations sur divers objects de physique (1785) Paris, were dedicated to the great American experimenter, Benjamin Franklin.
In Denmark, Otto Friderich Müller (1730-84) edited a great work, Flora Danica, which had been founded by Georg Christian Oeder (1728-91). The work contained 3240 plates and was published in 54 volumes. The first appeared in 1761, but publication was not complete until 1838. His first great book concerned zoological taxonomy. This, the Zoologiae Danicae prodromus (1776) was in some ways a prelude to the Zoologia Danica. The first volume of this impressive work appeared in 1777. Volume 2 came out in 1784. The final two volumes were published posthumously, edited and extended by an editorial team headed by P C Abilgaard, in 1789 and 1806. Spanish botanical publishing in the eighteenth century was much advanced by the establishment of the Real Jardín Botånico at Madrid in 1755, and in the later decades by extensive collecting expeditions . In Germany, the principles of pollination were investigated by Joseph Kölreuter (1733-1806) who published his researches in Vorlaufige Nachricht von einigen des Geschlect der Pflanzen betreffenden Versuchen und Beobachtungen (1761) Leipzig. They were extended by Conrad Sprengel (1750-1816) in his Das neu entdeckte Geheimnis der Natur im Bau und Befruchtung der Blumen, published in 1793 and translated as The discovered secret of nature in the structure and fertilization of flowers. Sprengel revealed the role of the pollination process and showed how flowers were anatomically adapted to pollinating insects. It was a profound revelation, truly one of the great insights in botany, yet his book was widely ignored and he bitterly abandoned botany in favour of philology. One of Sprengel's sources of inspiration was Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-78) whom we know as a philosopher, but who was an inspirational botanist as well. Born in Geneva, and unsuccessfully apprenticed to an engraver, he later earned his living as a music teacher until commissioned by Denis Didérot (1713-84) to write for his prodigious encyclopedia. Rousseau was one of the most eloquent writers of the Age of Enlightenment. The age celebrated the use of the mind as a tool, and many of the greatest writers were active in the arts and the sciences, a flexibility to which few can aspire in the twentieth century, but which reveals the majesty of human thought. Didérot, for example, published fact and fiction, essays and plays, art and literary criticism, in addition to his work as an encyclopaedist. He was commissioned in 1747 to edit a French translation of the Cyclopaedia by Ephraim Chambers. Initially in collaboration with Jean Le Rond d'Alembert (1717-83), a noted theoretical physicist and mathematician, he embarked on a grand project - a new and controversial 35-volume work, Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonnée des sciences, des arts et des metiers, generally known simply as the Encyclopédie. Many other celebrated writers contributed, including Voltaire and Montesquieu, and the work became a medium for propaganda against religiosity and feudalism. The Conseil du Roi actually banned the first ten volumes published between 1751-59. The publication continued in secret, until seventeen volumes of text were published by 1765, with plates and appendices added in 1780 .
Rousseau also wrote on the need for 'pure' botany with a modern insight: 'when we are used to looking at plants only as drugs or medicines . . . one does not imagine that the structure of the plant is worthy of attention in itself'. His botanical papers were published 27 years after his death, as La botanique de J J Rousseau (1805) Paris. The book is illustrated with 65 coloured plates, from original paintings by Pierre-Joseph Redouté (1759-1840) who, from his birthplace in the Ardennes region of Belgium, trained in Paris and became the protégé of Napoleon's wife Josephine. Many of the great works of botany in the early nineteenth century were illustrated by his vivid studies. Redouté's first published illustrations - some of them printed in colour - occur in the Stirpes novae aut minus cognitae (1784-85) of Charles Louis l'Héritier de Brutelle (1746-1800). In Paris, meanwhile, d'Alembert published much work on his own. A landmark in mechanics was his Traité de dynamique (1743) which enunciated the concept of 'equal and opposite' forces. He applied the principle in the Traité de l'équilibre et du mouvement des fluides (1744). A sequence of publications ensued: Réflexions sur la cause générale des vents (1747); Essai d'une nouvelle théorie sur la résistance des fluides (1752); Recherches sur différents points importants du système du monde, three volumes (1754); and Opuscules mathématiques (1761-80).
In descriptive botany during the eighteenth century we may discern the supplanting of old techniques by more modern technologies. In 1755 H L Duhamel de Monceau published the last major work to be illustrated with old-fashioned woodcuts. This, the Traité des arbres et des arbustes, was a wide-ranging work but heralded the demise of the wood-cut block in botanical publishing. Twenty-five years earlier, Jacob van Huysum (c1687-1740) had published the first major botanical book with illustrations printed in full colour. This was the first volume of his planned Catalogus plantarum (1730) devoted entirely to trees. The engraved plates were inked with pigments of different colours à la poupée and each impression produced a full-colour illustration. It is interesting to note the first author ever to use this technique: Johann Teyler (1648-99) produced plates of plants inked up in this way in the closing years of the seventeenth century, but it was the van Husum volume which pioneered the introduction of this technique to scientific publishing. As the century drew to its close, lithography was introduced by Alois Senefelder (1771-1874). His first successful lithographs appeared in 1797, though the first book containing plant illustrations printed lithographically was to be Rudolph Ackerman's Series of thirty studies from nature in 1812. Today's offset printing is directly descended from these early experiments of the eighteenth century.
One of the great stimuli to the taxonomy of plants was the new era of exploration. The first major voyage of exploration was under the command of James Cook (1728-79) who set out in the Endeavour in 1768. The voyage was conceived as a geographical and astronomical adventure, though Banks seems to have conceived of the potential for publishing of the natural history revelations even before they departed. On board the ship were Joseph Banks , later President of the Royal Society, and Daniel Solander, student of Linnaeus. The artists on the Endeavour's voyages were Sydney Parkinson (a Quaker), William Hodges (son of a blacksmith) and John Webber (son of a Swiss sculptor). Much of their fine work was never published in their lifetimes. Parkinson's original studies are preserved at the Natural History Museum, London. The drawings by Hodges and Webber are preserved, largely unpublished, in the collections. William Anderson (1748-78) accompanied Cook on two of his voyages and passed his extensive specimen collections to Joseph Banks. His journal exists in the collections of the Public Records Office . Engravings from the original drawings by Sydney Parkinson were made during the 1770s but never published at the time. The original engraved plates were recently found to be in excellent condition in the basement of the Natural History Museum, and have been published à la poupée for the first time during the 1990s by Editions Alecto . Pulls of some of the plates (in black only) had been made during the eighteenth century, and there was a limited edition of 100 copies published as Captain Cook's Florilegium (1973) London. However, the full collection of plates awaited publication in colour for 220 years, an unenviable record in scientific publishing. Parkinson died working overseas, and his Journal of a voyage to the south seas was published posthumously in 1773. The Department of Zoology of the Natural History Museum in London holds a book containing a further 40 water-colours by Parkinson, dated 1767, which were published in 1968 under the title Forty drawings of fishes made by the artists who accompanied Captain James Cook on his three voyages round the Pacific 1768-71, 1771-75, 1776-80.
[See also: Sawyer, F C (1950) Some natural history drawings made during captain Cook's first voyage round the world, Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 2 (vi): 190-193].
Cook's first publication took the form of notes on a solar eclipse published in the Royal Society's Philosophical Transactions (1766). He published an account of the second voyage of the Endeavour in two volumes as A voyage towards the South Pole, and round the world [etc] (1777). The account of the third voyage, co-authored with James King, appeared as A voyage to the Pacific Ocean. Undertaken by command of His Majesty, for making discoveries [etc] in three volumes (1784) London. The first two volumes were written by Cook, the third by King. The book sold out three days after its first publication, and was quickly reprinted. The third edition is dated 1785. Cook's account of his first journey is preserved in manuscript in the Mitchell Library, Sydney. It was published under the editorship of W F L Wharton as Captain Cook's journal during his first voyage round the world made in H M Bark 'Endeavour' (1893) London . One of the natural philosophers who accompanied Cook on his second voyage was Georg Forster, who later travelled widely in Europe with Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) of Berlin. Baron von Humboldt made significant contributions to many of the sciences including geology and geophysics, meteorology and astronomy, botany and zoology. Inspired by Forster's accounts of the voyage with Cook, von Humboldt resigned his position as Inspector of Mines in Prussia in 1795 to devote himself to independent research and exploration. He published a regional botanical guide, Flora Freiburgensis [etc] (1793) and a work in physiology Versuche über die gereizte Muskel- und Nervenfaer (1797). As the century ended he departed on a 10,000 km (6 000 mi) tour of South America, thus carrying into the nineteenth century a zeal for scientific exploration which was born in the eighteenth.
Not all notable botanical publishing was in the form of books. The Botanical Magazine was founded in 1787 by William Curtis (1746-99) and is published to this day. Curtis was born at Alton, Hampshire and moved to London to practice as an apothecary. In 1772 he was appointed Praefectus horti at the Society of Apothecaries' Garden in Chelsea and stayed in that position until 1777. He began publishing his Flora Londoniensis in May 1775, with further issues appearing at intervals until 1798. A two-volume edition appeared in 1777 and 1798. In the first edition there were over 400 plates, each hand-coloured, and this figure rose to almost 650 by the second edition. Three hundred copies of each were published, the plates being coloured by a team of 30 painters. He published 36 volumes of English Botany (1790-1814) containing a total of 2,590 drawings . The text for these books was in fact contributed by Sir James Edward Smith (1759-1828).
The best-remembered British naturalist of the time was Gilbert White (1720-1793) of Selborne. His book, The natural history and antiquities of Selborne, has been through more than 200 editions and has been continuously in print since it first appeared. It was originally printed in 1789, the edition being published anonymously. The book contains letters on natural history, most of them written to his friends Thomas Pennant and Daines Barrington. White was educated at Oriel College, Oxford, but lived for most of his adult life in Selborne where he recorded innumerable observations on natural history. These were interspersed with personal observations in his diary. The year after his book was published, White wrote this entry in his journal: 'Mrs. Edmund White brought to bed of a boy, who has increased the number of my nephews and nieces to 56. One polyanth stalk produces 47 pips or blossoms'. White was an early proponent of the Linnean system of classification, evidence of his sound grasp of biological principles, and his writings exude an enthusiasm for the natural world.
We have seen that Rousseau, though better known as a philosopher, contributed to the advancement of science. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) is perhaps most familiar as a poet and philosopher, but actively pursued interests in natural history and the sciences. His chief work in botany is Versuch, die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklaren (1790) Gotha. It was reprinted in the same year, and was subsequently translated into French and English during the nineteenth century. His researches on the intermaxillary bone were published in 1784 (see Wells, G A (1967) Goethe and the intermaxillary bone, British Journal for the History of Science, 3: 348-361). He published a paper on colour theory, Beiträge zur Optik (1791), and wrote a paper on anatomy entitled Erster Entwurf einer allgemeinen Einleitung in die vergleichende Anatomie in 1795, though this was not formally published until it appeared in 1820 in Zur Morphologie. As the century ended he was working on the publication he regarded as his most important contribution to science. This was Farbenlehre, published in 1808.
Goethe's work was surrounded by controversy, and the repercussions of Lamarck's views were still apparent as the twentieth century drew to a close. Jean Baptise Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1744-1829) was the eleventh child of an impoverished aristocratic family. He entered the army before choosing to devote himself to botany at the age of 24. In 1778 he published a great work in three volumes, Flore Française. A second edition was published in 1793, and a third (edited by A P Candolle in six volumes) appeared in 1805-15. Lamarck was befriended by Buffon, the wealthy naturalist, and accompanied him on a tour through the Netherlands, Germany and Hungary. His interests turned towards geology, and he wrote Hydrogéologie, ou recherches sur l'influence qu'ont les eaux sur la surface du globe terrestre [etc] in 1802. As the century turned, he was already showing a greater interest in zoology and it was this field which led him to propose views in the field of evolution which came to oppose those of Charles Darwin . Darwin's theory had antecedents, as well as rivals. His grandfather Erasmus Darwin (1731-1800),who was born near Derby, qualified in medicine at Cambridge in 1755 and published a 'poem, in two parts, with philosophical notes'. This appeared as Part I: The economy of vegetation (1791) London, and Part II: The loves of the plants (1789) Litchfield; curiously, the second part appeared prior to the publication of the first. This work was later translated into French, Portuguese and Italian. He also wrote Phytologia, or the philosophy of agriculture and gardening [etc] (1799)17, and early in the next century appeared the posthumously published Temple of nature [etc] (1803). Erasmus Darwin also wrote on zoology, curiously supporting the concept of spontaneous generation for a time. However, his two-volume Zoonomia, or the laws of organic life (1794-96) London, was replete with advanced scientific ideas. It treats of pathology and generation, and sets out a concept of evolution which anticipates the theory later espoused by Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) and expanded by Charles Darwin (1809-1882) . A new edition of this seminal book was printed in London (1796) and as four volumes in 1801. It was printed as two volumes in New York (1796). A three-volume edition was printed in Philadelphia (1797), Dublin (1800) and Boston (1803). The American publications were reprinted during the early years of the nineteenth century.
Other notable writers of the period turned to the study of zoology from other areas of interest. Vicq d'Azyr (1748-94) was a physician in Paris who later specialised in comparative anatomy (notably of the brain). The only book published during his lifetime was Traité d'anatomie et physiologie (1786), Paris, though his papers were collectively published in six volumes as Oeuvres de Vicq d'Azyr, recueillées et publiées aves les notes et un discours sur la vie et ses ouvrages, par Jacq L Moreau (1805) Paris. A Berlin-born natural philosopher, Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1734-94) went to St Petersburg where he was elected to the Royal Academy of Science and specialised in embryology. His first major publication was Theoria generationis (1759) Halle (reprinted in 1774), and was published in German as Theorie von der Generationen (1764) Berlin. It has been re-issued in more recent times - with an introduction by Robert Herrlinger- and republished in Hildesheim in 1966. One of Wolff's major books was initially published in a journal and did not appear in book form until the German translation was issued early in the nineteenth century .
Edward Jenner (1749-1823) is renowned for his pioneering experiment on vaccination. The discovery was not the result of an individual insight, for variolation (the use of serum from mild cases of smallpox) had been known for many years previous. The principles of variolation were first popularised in Britain by Lady Mary Montague (1689-1762) whose husband was British ambassador to Turkey. Vaccination, which utilizes an inoculation from a case of cowpox, rather than smallpox, had long been part of rural folk-lore. The fair face of the milkmaid resulted from her immunity to smallpox infection. On 14 May 1796, Jenner carried out his trials of inoculation with the cowpox virus, using an eight-year-old boy, James Phipps, as his experimental subject. Jenner was warned by the Royal Society not to injure his reputation further by associating himself with such superstitious traditions, and published the experiments privately in June 1798 as An enquiry into the causes and effects of the variolae vaccinae, a disease by the name of cow pox. This historic publication extends to a mere 75 quarto pages, with four coloured plates. A supplement appeared in 1799, Further observations on the variolae vaccinae and a Continuation of facts and observations relative to the variolae vaccinae and A complete statement of facts and observations relative to the cow-pock followed in 1780. These papers were all reprinted in the two-volume Crookshank's pathology and history of vaccination (1889).
Jenner was born in the Gloucestershire village of Berkeley where he spent most of his life. He became a pupil of John Hunter (q.v.) and Hunter used to write asking him to prosecute his enquiries into natural history and report back. Jenner's most celebrated early paper was Natural History of the cuckoo, published in Philosophical Transactions in 1788. It described the ejection of the young hedge sparrow by the young cuckoo, and attracted considerable attention. Like his work on smallpox, this was not an original observation, but was common knowledge among country people. The account does not stand up to scrutiny, for Jenner used his nephew Harry to make the observations and the indolent youngster, lacking the patience to make observations himself, wrote an imaginary account which Jenner offered as his paper for the Royal Society. It was later translated into French and Italian. Shortly after its publication in the Philosophical Transactions he was elected to the fellowship of the Royal Society .
Other figures of the era has less orthodox careers. George Stubbs (1724-1806) produced fine studies of equine anatomy. They have never been equalled. His father was a leather-dresser, and the young George trained as an engraver. He visited Italy in 1754, but for the next 20 years lived with his niece, Mary Spencer, in a remote Lincolnshire farmhouse. He suspended the body of a horse on a frame in his home, dissecting away each carcase in layers and painstakingly recording each structure as he found it. The odour of the decaying body spread for a considerable distance down-wind of his home. Finding it impossible to employ an engraver willing to work on his project, he undertook to engrave each study himself. The final volume of 18 large folio tables and 23 plates was printed by J Purser, for the author, in 1766. It was reprinted in 1853 and re-issued by Bracken Press in 1990. It remains a peerless example of observational anatomy. Stubbs became a celebrated painter, claiming (without justification) to be a Royal Academician. A frequent subject was a lion attacking a horse. This stems from an episode Stubbs personally witnessed near Ceuta, North Africa, when on an excursion from his Italian sojourn. It made an indelible impression which lives on through his ouevres. Four further volumes of Stubbs' work were rediscovered amongst papers at the Free Public Library in Worcester, Mass. The work was entitled A comparative anatomical exposition of a human body with that of a tiger and a common fowl. Stubbs had started working on it in 1795, though he lived to see pulls from only a few of the plates. Extracts have since been published.
Francis Willughby (co-worker with John Ray) published a major book Ornithology in 1678. Among the budding naturalists it stimulated was the young Thomas Pennant (1726-98) who was given a copy at the age of twelve. Pennant was born in the Welsh county of Fflint, and matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford. He did not graduate. He travelled extensively, and published a number of important zoological reference books, including The British zoology (1761-66), Indian zoology (1769 & 1790), Genera of birds (1773 & 1781), Natural history of the turkey (1781), and Arctic zoology (1784 & 1785). Curiously, he also wrote The literary life of the late Thomas Pennant, Esq. (1793) London, which, in spite of the allusion in its title, was published five years prior to his demise.
An extraordinary work on tropical fish was published by Louis Renard (1678 or 1679-1746). He lived a chequered life as a publisher and dealer in books, and for some years was an agent of the British Crown in the Netherlands. He served Queen Mary and the Kings George I and II, working against the interests of the exiled James Stuart and writing reports back to Britain. Little is known of Renard's background, and the only picture of him shows a distant figure smoking a long clay pipe as women file past in a brothel (Pietsch ). His great work of natural history was Poissons, Ecrevisses et Crabes (1719) Amsterdam, more popularly known as Natural History of the Rarest Curiosities of the Seas of the Indies. It is a notorious book, well known for the grotesque nature of the plates. They show absurdly coloured and distorted pictures of sea-creatures. As a work of scholarship, the book has been dismissed as 'crude' and 'barbarous' though its cartoons have made it a prized item amongst collectors of curiosities. However, some of the organisms have proved to bear a resemblance to existing species. Recent research has reconciled the published drawings with current zoological knowledge, and concludes that in only a few cases were the pictures entirely fanciful. This offers a new interpretation of the book. Far from being a mass of fiction, it now seems to have been based on fact. The truth of the matter is that Renard could not draw . René Antoine Ferchault de Réamur (1683-1757), a native of La Rochelle, was for two centuries commemorated by the thermometric scale bearing his name. This, with the freezing-point of water at 0°R and boiling-point at 80°R, was still in use in parts of central Europe until the 1960s. Réamur studied mathematics at Paris and published a method of smelting steel, but his greatest work was a book entitled Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des insectes, published in Paris between 1734-42 in six volumes. It contained some 250 plates and over 5,000 other illustrations. A seventh volume, uncompleted at the time of his death, was produced in Paris in 1928. Among his other works was an innovative treatise on the rearing of birds in incubators, Art de faire éclore et d'élever en toutes saisons des oiseaux domestiques de toutes espèces, originally published in two volumes in Paris dated 1749, with a second edition in 1751. It was translated into English by Abraham Trembley (infra) and was published in London in 1750 under the title The art of hatching and bringing up domestic fowls, by means of artificial heat. A German edition was published in 1767-68. Somewhat confusingly, a book on insects with the same title was published by Charles de Geer (1720-78), a native of Sweden. His own Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des insectes appeared between 1752-78 in seven volumes and owed much to Réamur. It was also strongly influenced by the system of classification published by Linnaeus (supra). Réamur and Trembley jointly influenced the prolific work of Charles Bonnet (1720-93), a native of Geneva, Switzerland, born of French parents. Bonnet studied natural history extensively. He made studies of regeneration in Hydra and the reproduction of aphids, and investigated insect respiration. His prodigious output gave rise to eighteen volumes entitled Oeuvres d'histoire naturelle, et de philosophie (1779-83) Neuchatel. The greatest work on Hydra was that done by Abraham Trembley (1710-1784) of Geneva. He was employed as tutor to the young children of Count Bentinck of The Hague, and wrote extensive descriptions of the freshwater polype (named Hydra by Linneaus in 1746). His book of 1744 is Mémoirs, pour servir à l'histoire d'un genre de polypes d'eau douce, à bras en forme de cornes, Leiden. It has been translated and published in an annotated volume as Lenhoff, S G & H W (1986) Hydra and the birth of experimental biology, California: Pacific Grove. The new edition, with its fold-out plates, is a fitting tribute to a detailed and painstaking programme of research, and the investigations have been set into context in Virginia Dawson's 1987 book Nature's enigma, the problem of the polype in the letters of Bonnet, Trembley, and Réamur published in Philadelphia. Trembley's work was contemporaneously popularised in Britain by a bookseller and amateur enthusiast named Henry Baker (1698-1774) in his A natural history of the polype (1743) London. He also published The microscope made easy [etc] 1743, London, a book illustrated with many engravings derived from earlier authors, the second edition having an additional plate of a solar microscope. This had been invented by Leeuwenhoek, the design being perfected by J N Lieberkühn in 1739. Finally, there was Baker's 1753 book entitled Employment for the microscope, which further popularised the microscope in Britain. Hydra was also studied by August Johann Roesel von Rosenhof (1705-59) whose early writings appeared in a magazine entitled Insekten-Belustigungen and who in 1758 published a beautifully-illustrated book Die natürliche Historie der Frosche, Nuremberg, on the natural history of frogs.
High-power microscopy had born a hundred years earlier through the writings of Grew and Hooke, the latter inspiring the Dutch draper Leeuwenhoek to his great endeavours  as the founder of microbiology. Their work, which began in the seventeenth century, came to greater prominence in the eighteenth. Robert Hooke (1635-1703) died as the eighteenth century began, but the memorable images published in his great folio work Micrographia (1st edition 1665, 2nd edition 1667) continued in print. The first posthumous volume was Micrographia restaurata, (1745) London, printed for J Bowles. It was followed by Microscopic Observations, Dr Hooke's wonderful discoveries by the microscope [etc] (1780) London, R Wilkinson. Hooke's collected publications appeared in 1705 as a collection: The posthumous works, including Cutlerian lectures, [etc], published in London by R Waller, S Smith and B Walford whilst in 1726 appeared the Philosophical experiments and observations of R Hooke [etc], published by W Derham, & J Innys. All of Hooke's major papers were reprinted in Burch, T., (1756-57) The history of the Royal Society of London.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), the draper of Delft, made many of his greatest discoveries during the seventeenth century. However, his works appeared in volume form predominantly during the eighteenth. Of the 20 editions in Dutch, 15 were published after 1695. The eighteenth century books containing Leeuwenhoek's researches were: Sevende Vervolg der Brieven, waar in gehandelt werd [etc] (1702) Delft; Vervolg der Brieven, gesschreven aan de Wytvermaarde Koninglijke Societiet in Londen 3rd edition (1704) Leiden; Ontledingen en Ontdekkingen van de Cinnaber naturalis [etc] new edition (1713) Leiden; Send-brieven, zoo aan de Hoog-edele Heeren van de Koninklyke Societiet te Londen (1718) Delft; Briefen Deel IV, with portrait of Goeree (1718) Delft; Anatomia Seu interiora Rerum [etc] editio novissima, prioribus emendatior (1722) Lugduni Batavorum (Boutestein); Continuatio epistolarum (third edition 1715, fourth edition 1730) Lugduni Batavorum (Boutestein); Arcana naturae detecta (third edition 1708, fourth editio novissima 1722), Lugduni Batavorum (Boutestein); Continuato arcanorum naturae detectorum, second edition (1722), Leiden; Epistolae ad Societem Regiam Anglicam [etc] (1719), Lugduni Batavorum (Langerak); Epistolae physiologicae super compluribus naturae artcanis [etc] (1719) Lugduni Batavorum (Langerak); and the great Opera Omnia, seu arcana naturae [etc], four volumes (1722) Lugduni Batavorum (Langerak). Fifteen letters addressed to Magliabechi were published by Targioni-Tozzetti in 1745 as The Leeuwenhoek manuscripts in the National Library of Florence, and an edited and censored version of many Leeuwenhoek letters was published by Hoole, S., (1798, 1807) as The select works of Antony van Leeuwenhoek, containing his miscroscopical [sic] discoveries in many of the works of nature (two volumes), London. A second printing quickly followed, with the spelling corrected. Leeuwenhoek's illustrations were drawn to his instruction by a limner, and were used as a reference by later workers. For example, they appear in slightly altered form in Baker's work (supra). Leeuwenhoek's Collected correspondence is being published in an annotated English translation. The first volume was published in Amsterdam by Swets & Zeitlinger in 1939, and their volume XII appeared in 1989. This included letters dated 1696-1699, half-way through Leeuwenhoek's fifty-year career in microscopy. It thus took rather longer for the translators to reach the mid-point of Leeuwenhoek's correspondence, than the length of Leeuwenhoek's entire career.
Many illustrations of microscopes are to be found in a book by Louis Joblot (1645-1723) entitled Descriptions et usages de plusiers nouveaux microscopes tant simple que composez [etc] (1718) 2 parts, Paris. This book is now rare. He followed it by Observations d'histoire naturelle, faites avec le microscope [etc] 2 volumes (1754-55), Paris. He was Professeur Royal en mathématiques de l'Académie Royale de peinture et sculpture in Paris. Many other authors published books on the microscopic animals found in nature . The stimulus of an awareness of microscopical structure led to important research in several newly nascent areas. One of the first to appear was an opportunistic and fraudulent book written by an English quack, Mr Boil. It appeared as: Monsieur A C D (1726) Systême d'un medecin anglois sur la cause de touts les especes de maladies, Paris, which illustrated a series of 91 curious creatures said to cause disease. It was disclosed in Vallisneri, A (1733) Opere fisico-mediche stampate e manoscritte . . . raccolte de Antonio suo figliuolo, Venezia, that the book falsely claimed to be the work of a doctor trained in Persia. In fact, Mr Boil had a v-shaped instrument which allowed him to demonstrate small animals in a concealed tube to his patients whilst claiming to be focussing on their blood or urine.
More diligent and valuable investigations were carried out by Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-99) of Scandiano. He carried out demonstrations to support a belief promulgated by Leeuwenhoek and substantiated by Francesco Redi (1626-97), namely, that spontaneous generation was a myth. Spallanzani studied law - his father's occupation - at Bologna, later embracing mathematics and French. At Reggio N'ell Emilia he was appointed Professor of logic, metaphysics and Greek and at Modena was Professor of physics until 1769, when he became Professor of natural history at Pavia where he died on 11 February 1799. Spallanzani's initial response to the spontaneous generation controversy is cited in the following section, but his other major findings were published as Saggio di osservazione microscopiche relative al sistema della generazione (1767) Modena; Prodromi suilla riproduzione animale [etc] (1769) Modena; De' fenomeni della circolazione [etc] (1773) Modena; Oppusculi di fisica animale e vegetabile [etc] (1782) Venice; Chimico esame [etc] (1796) Modena; and Mémoires sur la respiration [etc] (1803) Geneva. There have been many editions, notably the six-volume Le opere (1932-36) Milan, and the four-volume Epistolaria (1958-59) Florence. Spontaneous generation had been advocated by John Turberville Needham (1713-81) and the Comte be Buffon (1707-88). Needham was a Roman Catholic Welshman who was much influenced by work on infusion microorganisms published in 1746 by 'Sir' John Hill (the knighthood was an invention). Hill, rightly dismissed as a 'quack', published in 1752 Essays in natural history and philosophy: discoveries by the microscope, London. During a short visit to Paris, Needham became acquainted with Buffon and took to his idea spontaneous generation through the organisation of 'organical parts' to fuel the 'prima stamina' of life. Needham's work on this topic - which won him Fellowship of the Royal Society - was published as: A summary of some late observations upon the generation, composition, and decomposition of animal and vegetable substances, (1749) Philosophical Transactions, 490: 615. The ideas were translated and appeared as: Nouvelles observations microscopiques, avec les découvertures intéressantes sur la composition et la décomposition des corps organisés (1750) Paris, and Idée sommaire ou vue général du système physique et métaphysique de Monsieur Needham sur la génération des corps organisés (1776) Brussels.
The first major attack on this school of thought was published anonymously by the French metaphysician J A Lelarge de Lignac (1710-62) as Lettres à un Ameriquain sur l'histoire naturalle générale et particulière de M. de Buffon, which dismisses Buffon's work. Needham, when he saw it, said the work was being criticised 'avec une indécence et une arrogance si extraordinaire et avec si peu de connaisances que nous avons alors résolus ensemble de ne lui jamais répondre'. Voltaire, in Des singularités de la nature (1769) dismisses Needham as 'un jésuit irlandais [sic] nommé Needham qui voyageait dans l'Europe en habit séculier' and in Histoire de Jenni (1768) returns to the attack with remarks about 'un fou nommé Needham'. Spallanzani entered the fray with Saggio di osservazioni microscopische concernenti it sistema della generazione dei Signori di Needham e Buffon (1765) Modena, which was translated into French by the Abbé Regley, who included many critical annotations by Needham. Spallanzani carried out a series of careful experiments which proved, beyond reasonable doubt, that microorganisms were produced only from contaminated infusions. To counter Needham's unsubstantiated views he wrote an essay entitled 'Osservazioni e sperienze intorno agli animalucci delle infusioni [etc]' (1776) in the celebrated Opuscoli di fisica animale e vegetabile, Modena.
Ideas of fermentation and infection crystallized during the nineteenth century, but the eighteenth gave them birth. The most influential eighteenth-century book on fermentation was Adam Fabbrioni's Dell'arte di fare il vino, published in Florence (1787) and translated into French by F R Baud in 1801. The author, otherwise unknown, is believed to be a brother of G V M Fabbrioni (1752-1822). Pasteur recorded his belief that: 'Fabrioni peut donc être considéré à juste titre le principal promoteur des idées modernes sur la nature du ferment' [in: Pasteur, L (1866) Études sur le vin, ses maladies, causes et provoquent [etc], Paris]. A remarkably prescient work on contagion was published by Benjamin Marten of London in 1720 (with a second edition in 1722). It was A new theory of consumptions: more especially of a pthisis or consumption of the lungs, a book apparently written for a popular audience. Martyn, who lived in Theobald's Row, found fault with the current theories: Dolaeus' volatile particles, van Helmont's ferments, Morton's 'ill-natur'd humours', Sylvius' salt acrimony, even Willis' sourness of the internal juice. Marten ascribed tuberculosis to:
'wonderfully minute living creatures that . . . by their disagreeable parts are inimical to our nature but are however capable of existing in our juices and vessels and which, being drove to the lungs . . . and by wounding or gnawing the tender vessels of the lungs cause all the disorders mentioned.'
In this way he saw how animalcules could cause the 'deplorable symptoms of the disease', emphasising how odd his theory must seem to those people who cannot imagine creatures 'besides [those] which are conscious to the bare eye [but are] infinitely smaller and wholly imperceptible to our eye though assisted by the best glasses'. This is an important, if speculative, book. Other writers were less inspired by far. Johannes Nyander in 1757 published Resp. exanthemata viva [etc] at Uppsala, argued that the cheese and the itch mite were identical, and added that dysentery and smallpox, plague and syphilis, were all caused by mites. In 1762, Marcus Antonius Plenciz (1705-1786) published Opera medico-physica in quatuor tractatus digesta quorum primus contagii morborum [etc], Vienna. In tract 1, section 1, he wrote of seeds of contagion which could be carried by the air and lie dormant, a view which sounds prophetic until later passages which show he believed these would eventually germinate to produce beetles, flies, leeches and gnats.
Pieter Lyonet (1706-89) was a Dutch lawyer whose made natural history his hobby. He made detailed studies of the minute anatomy of the caterpillar, and his book Traité anatomique de la chenille qui rouge le bois de saule was published in 1760, has been hailed as a monument to outstanding research. A catalogue of his extensive collections was published in 1796, Catalogue raisonné du célébre cabinet de coquilles de feu P Lyonet, The Hague.
We have encountered George Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-88), earlier in this chapter. He was one of the most prolific writers on natural history throughout the eighteenth century. He began the vast work Histoire naturelle which spanned 44 volumes, the first three of which were published in 1749, the last appearing in 1804. Incomplete drafts of Les époques de la nature, dating from 1778, were edited and published by Jacques Roger in 1962. The Oeuvres complètes de Monsieur le Comte de Buffon were published in Paris between 1774-89 (145 volumes), whilst the Oeuvres philosophiques de Buffon, edited by Jean Piveteau, were not published until 195524. Albrecht von Haller (1708-77) was also hugely prolific, and showed considerable versatility. Graduating from Leiden in 1727, where he studied under Boerhaave, he became Professor of anatomy, surgery and botany at Göttingen. In 1728 he published Enumeratio methodica stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae, Göttingen, followed in 1768 by Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae inchoate, Berne, which described 2,486 species of plants native to Switzerland. Between 1771-72 he published Bibliotheca botanica, two volumes, Berne and Basle; then in 1774-77 he produced Bibliotheca anatomica in two volumes at Zurich. Haller had published a cascade of medical and physiological books at Göttingen: Icones anatomicae in eight parts (1743-56); De respiratione experimentia anatomica (1746); Disputationes anatomicae in seven volumes (1746-52); Primae lineae physiologicae in usum praelectionum academicarium (1747). Elementa physiologiae corporis [etc] was published at Berne and Lausanne in eight volumes (1778). His shorter works were published at Lausanne in three volumes: Opera minora emendata, aucta et renovata (1762-68).
Thomas Sydenham (1624-89) was an innovative physician, born in Wynford Eagle, Dorsetshire, and educated at the University of Oxford. He described the value of cinchona bark to treat malaria. His Processus Integri 1692, published posthumously, became a leading textbook for a generation. Like Hooke and Leeuwenhoek, he is well known for books published during the eighteenth century. The whole works of that most excellent physician, Dr Thomas Sydenham (1717) London, which does not in fact contain the 'whole' works, and the Opera medica (1757) Geneva, which does, reveal him to have been a revolutionary, an outsider and something of a maverick. Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) showed sympathy with such ideas by carrying out the first scientific studies of occupational health. His De morbis artificum (1700), Modena, was published in English as A treatise on the diseases of tradesmen (1705) London. Pathology was effectively launched during this era, with the work of Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771). He published his great work De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis (1761) Venice, when he was eighty. It took the form of letters to a collaborator, describing diseases and relating the process of morbidity to the findings at autopsy. This master-work was published in London in three volumes as The seats and causes of diseases (1769). It is a medical classic.
The Hunter brothers William (1718-1783) and John (1728-1793) were born in Long Calderwood, Scotland, and became leading authorities on anatomy. They were also, in later years, rivals. To this day, followers and students of one tend to abhor the other. William studied medicine at Glasgow, graduating in 1750, and became a leading London doctor and lecturer. His best known book is the superbly illustrated Anatomy of the human gravid uterus, exhibited in figures (1774). His younger brother John did not study at university, but began adult life as a cabinet-maker. He travelled to London in 1748 to help his brother teach anatomy. He began to read lectures at Surgeon's Hall in 1753 and in 1758 he was appointed surgeon at St George's Hospital, London. He was appointed a surgeon to King George III in 1776. One of his experiments involved self-inoculation with syphilis, which he erroneously believed to be identical with gonorrhoea. His books include: The natural history of the human teeth (1771); A treatise on the venereal disease (1786); Observations on certain parts of animal oeconomy (1786). His Treatise on the blood, inflammation, and gunshot wounds was published posthumously in 1794. He had private natural history collections amounting to over 10,000 items which became the nucleus of the new Royal College of Surgeons . John Hunter's Observations and reflections on geology [etc] written in 1790, was not published until 1859. In the Netherlands, one of the great anatomists of the age was Bernard Siegfried Albinus (1697-1770) of Leiden. His major works included Tabulae sceleti et musculorum corporis humani (1747) and Tabulae ossium humanorum (1753), with many illustrations set in 'pictorial' settings . The emerging science of comparative anatomy was greatly advanced through the work of Petrus Camper (1722-89) of Leiden. He compared human and ape anatomy, in 1782 publishing Naturkundige Verhandelingen over den Orang Outang [etc], Amsterdam, followed by Dissertation sur les variétés naturelles qui caracterisent la physiognomie des hommes [etc] (1791) Paris, which was translated from the Dutch by H J Jansen. James Hutton (1726-97) qualified in medicine in 1749, but turned from medicine and spent two decades travelling. In 1768 he returned to Edinburgh and became a leading member of scientific society and a prime mover of the Scottish Enlightenment . Like John Hunter, Hutton was fascinated by geology. In 1785 he read a paper to the Royal Society of Edinburgh entitled Theory of the earth. It was published that year as a small anonymous booklet: Abstract of a dissertation read in the Royal Society of Edinburgh, upon the seventh of March, and fourth of April, MDCCLXXXV, concerning the system of the earth, its duration, and stability. The paper was published in the Proceedings, and gave rise to a major two-volume book published in 1795. Hutton was active in chemistry, strenuously opposing Lavoisier, and also published An investigation of the principles of knowledge [etc], three volumes (1794) and Dissertations on the philosophy of light, heat and fire (1794). His Theory of the earth founded the uniformitarian theory of geology, expounding that ground rock in river-beds would eventually become conglomerate strata and return to its original state. It was a 'steady-state' view of geology as a process of eternal recycling. The century saw growing interest in geology in Britain .
John Woodward (1665-1728) was a pioneer of seventeenth-century plant physiology, and became Professor of Physic at Gresham College in 1692. An essay towards a natural history of the earth (1695) London, launched him into a career as a geologist. The book was reprinted in 1702 and 1703. Among his later works were: Naturalis historia telluris illustrata et aucta, three parts (1714); Observations on the different strata of earths and minerals [etc] (1727); Fossils of all kinds digested into a method (1728); and An attempt towards a natural history of fossils in England, two volumes (1728-29). William Whiston (1667-1752) published A new theory of the earth in 1696, and the books of Whiston and Woodward opened the century with grand gestures towards the advancement of geology in Britain. William Smith (1769-1839) was a 'navvy', who took to the study of geology from his observations during a career building canals. As the eighteenth century ended, he was beginning to compile the wonderfully detailed geological maps which laid the ground-work for modern geological workers. During the 1790s he listed the strata of England from Carboniferous to Cretaceous, and began to compile keys to fossils as identifiers. Many books stemmed from this endeavour, including A delineation of the strata of England and Wales with part of Scotland (1815) and Strata identified by organized fossils (1816-24). Johannes Bartholomäus Beringer (?-1740) was a professor at Wützburg who published a book entitled Lithographiae Wirceburgensis (1726) which revealed startling new discoveries in the neighbouring hills. Nothing like these fossils had been seen before, and indeed they have not been since. Beringer had been the victim of a hoax. Students carved stones to look like grotesque fossil forms, which he realised only when finding a 'new' fossil which had his name neatly carved into it. He attempted to retrieve and destroy every copy of the newly-printed book, and it is on this account extremely rare.
It was in mid-eighteenth century France that the first true geological maps were made. These were the work of Jean Étienne Guettard (1715-86) who travelled 3,000 kilometres across central France to delineate its surface geology. In 1746 he gave his first cartographic presentation to the Académie des Sciences. Guettard recognised discrete rocky strata extending from France to southern Britain, and after a visit to Italy in the 1770s concluded that volcanic activity had given rise to the characteristic geology of the Auvergne - an astonishing conclusion to a nation bereft of volcanoes. In 1746 he published his 'Mémoire et carte minéralogique sur la nature et situation des terreins qui traversent la France et l'Angleterre' in the Mémoires de mathématique et de physique . . . de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris. Nicholas Desmarest (1725-1815) studied the same regions of France, and took the step of showing that volcanic action had occurred at different epochs. He published 'Mémoire sur la détermination de trois époques de la nature par les produits des volcans' (1806) in Mémoires de l'institut des sciences, lettres et arts de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris. Barthélémy Faujas de Saint-Fond (1741-1819) meanwhile produced a beautiful folio work in 1778, Recherches sur les volcans étients du Vivarais et de Velay, Grenoble. Anton Lazzaro Moro (1687-1740) wrote on the origin of the world in De' crostacei e degli altri marini corpi che si trouvano su monti (1740) Venice, and a posthumously-published account written by Benoit de Maillet (1656-1738) is contained in Telliamed ou entretiens d'un philosophie indien avec une missionaire français (1748) Amsterdam. Geological investigation was active in Switzerland, where the forces of nature gave much bare and upthrust rock for study. Horace Benedict de Saussure (1740-99) of Geneva coined the term 'geology' in 1779, and wrote Voyages dans les Alpes, three volumes (1779-96). He pioneered experimental geology, and attempted to disprove Desmarest's theories about vulcanism. Johann Jacob Scheuchzer (1672-1733) studied fossils, writing Piscium querelae at vindiciae (1708) and the influential Herbarium diluvianum (1709) which described fossil plants.
Atomic theory began to take its modern form during the eighteenth century. The first book of the self-taught John Dalton (1766-1844) is Meteorological observations and essays with two imprints during 1793 in London (a second edition was not printed until 1834). His atomic theory was contained in A new system of chemical philosophy (1808-10) Manchester and London, but this was not the first modern atomic theory. That was published by the largely forgotten William Higgins (1763-1825), an Irish chemist who published A comparative view of the phlogistic and antiphlogistic theories [etc] (1789) London, with a second edition in 1791. He anticipated concepts including multiple proportion and valency, and became embittered at the later fame attracted by Dalton. Indeed, his Experiments and observations on the atomic theory and electrical phenomena (1814) London, contains a critique of Dalton's work. Richard Kirwan (1733-1812) was also Irish, a native of County Galway. Educated at Poitiers and Paris, he practised law in Ireland and then moved to London where he pursued interests in science, and was elected an FRS in 1780. He became friendly with Cavendish, Banks and Priestley, publishing Elements of mineralogy (1784), An essay on phlogiston and the constitution of acids (1787), An Essay on the analysis of mineral waters and Geological essays (1799) and Logic (1807). His Essay on phlogiston was translated into French by Madame Lavoisier.
Chemistry flourished during the eighteenth century, as Enlightenment thinking moved away from alchemy, and the early books on chemical discovery have long been collectors' items. The origins of the new discipline can be discerned through the books of the age. Jean Jacques Manget (1652-1742) published Bibliotheca chemica curiosa (1702) in Geneva, as two folio volumes containing 140 tracts on alchemy. It was one of the most comprehensive and well-organised accounts of alchemical practice. Few books on alchemy followed. Friedrich Roth-Stolz wrote a German treatise with a Latin title, Bibliotecha chemica, published in 1719 at Nuremberg. He followed it with Deutsches theatrum chemicum, a collection of 52 alchemical treatises published at Nuremberg between 1728 and 1732. This marked the demise of alchemy, and allowed chemistry to flourish. We have seen that Boerhaave published in the field of chemistry, as well as in natural history, and editions of his Elementa chemiae were widely translated and published. The editions included: Latin, (1732) in Leiden, Paris and London; (1733) in Paris; French (1741) in Paris, (1748) The Hague, (1752) Leiden, (1754) in Paris; German (1732-34, 1762, 1782) in Berlin, and English (1733, 1735, 1737) in London. Boerhaave's Some experiments concerning mercury [etc] was reprinted from the Royal Society in 1734, with Latin translations at Utrecht in 1736 and Venice in 1737. There is an exceedingly rare reprint from Elements of chemistry, subtitled Being the annual lectures of Herman Boerhaave, Englished by a Gentleman of the University of Oxford, which is undated but was actually published in January 1732. William Lewis (1708-81) edited George Wilson's Complete course of chemistry, published in 1746, and co-wrote with Alexander Chisholm the New dispensary of 1753, a description of experimental chemistry. In Russia, chemistry and physics were advanced by Mikhail Vasilevich Lomonosov (1711-65) who became regarded as the 'founder of Russian science'. He wrote Oratio de meteoris vi electrica orbis (1754), and De origine lucis (1757), both published in St Petersburg.
We think of Sir James Watt (1736-1819) as the progenitor of an efficient steam engine and an architect of the industrial revolution, but he is also known as a distinguished scientist. Born in Greenock, Renfrewshire, he trained as an instrument-maker in London 1756-57. He returned to Glasgow as 'mathematical instrument maker to the University'. Watt was active in the Lunar Society of Birmingham. His letters to Joseph Black (infra) and his manuscript on heat have been published by Robinson, Eric & McKie, Douglas (1970) Partners in science, James Watt and Joseph Black, London. The first systematic material theory on heat, later known as the caloric theory, was written by William Cleghorn (1754-83). He gained his MD from Edinburgh for a thesis entitled De igne (1779). We should also note the Polish-born Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) whose thermometric scale dates from 1721, and the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-44) who designed a mercury thermometer which led to the adoption of the temperature scale in use today. The original Celsius thermometer, it should be noted, had zero at boiling point and 100° as the freezing-point of water, the reverse of modern convention.
At Uppsala University, Torbern Olaf Bergman (1735-84) contributed to natural history, astronomy, chemistry and physics. His collected papers were published during the eighteenth century as Opuscula physica et chemica at Stockholm, Uppsala, Aboe and Leipzig in six volumes, 1779-90. A translation by William Withering. q.v., gave us Outlines of mineralogy [etc] (1783), whilst other versions appeared in London and Paris. Another noted Swedish chemist was Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-86) whose Chemische Abhandlung von der Luft und dem Feuer (1777), Uppsala and Leipzig, and Opuscula chemica et physica (1788-89) Leipzig, have been widely republished in translated editions. A facsimile of the English edition of 1786 was published in 1966.
The first professor of chemistry in Germany was Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817) who was responsible for several important developments at Berlin. He discovered uranium, zirconium oxide and compounds of titanium during the 1790s. His writings were published in Berlin as Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniß der Mineralköper (1795), and appeared in London as Analytical essays towards promoting the chemical knowledge of chemical substances in 1801. In Saxony, Carl Friederich Wenzel (1740-93) published on chemistry and metallurgy. He made special studies of the actions of acids on metals, and published Einleitung zur höheren Chymie (1774) Leipzig, Chymische Untersuchung des Flußpaths (1783) Dresden, and Lehre von der Verwandschaft der Körper (1777-79) Dresden. Jeremias Benjamin Richter (1762-1807) was a native of Silesia, and introduced the term stoichiometry to the study of the proportionality of reacting substances. He is the author of Aufängsgründe der Stochyometrie oder Meßkunst chemischer Elemente, three volumes (1792-94) Breslau & Hirschberg, and Über die neueren Gegenstände der Chemie (1791-802) Breslau. A great British teacher of chemistry was William Cullen (1712-90) who inspired many to investigate this new field. He did not publish, however, though we should note the writings of one of his pupils. With an Irish father and Scottish mother, Joseph Black (1728-99) was born in Bordeaux and qualified in medicine at Edinburgh in 1754. Of his inaugural dissertation, De humore acido a cibis orto et magnesia alba, the Dictionary of National Biography says: 'There is, perhaps, no other instance of a graduation thesis so weighted with novelty'. The text, suitably expanded, was to form his first book, Experiments upon magnesia alba, quick-lime and other alkaline substances [etc] (1777) Edinburgh. It was reprinted in 1782. He also published Directions for preparing aerated medicinal waters [etc] (1787) Edinburgh, and an edition of his Lectures on the elements of chemistry, delivered in the University of Edinburgh appeared in 1803 in Edinburgh and London. Otherwise he wrote little, concentrating instead on teaching. Black originated the concept of 'specific heat', and pioneered quantitative analysis. He recognised carbon dioxide, which he termed 'fixed air'.
Like Cavendish, Priestley and Scheele, Black believed in the phlogiston theory. This held that inflammable bodies were phlogiston-rich, and gave out this substance during combustion. The theory was expounded by Georg E Stahl (1660-1734) from the seventeenth-century work of Johann Joachim Becher (1635-1682). In 1669 Becher claimed to recognise three types of matter: vitrifiable, mercurial, and combustible. Stahl coined the term phlogiston for the flammable property possessed by the third category. Although the notion has been dismissed as absurd, the supposed movement of phlogiston has a scientific interpretation30, for we can relate it to the transfer of electrons during oxidation.
At the time it made perfect sense. Stahl's work was Zufällige Gedancken und nützliche Bedencken über den Streit, von dem so genannten Sulphure (1718), Halle. The phlogiston theory was resolutely opposed by the creative genius of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-94) of Paris, who studied law and became a tax-collector before branching out to embrace many other scientific disciplines. At the age of 23 he won a gold medal for an essay on street lighting, and became a member of the Académie des Sciences when just 25 years old. Lavoisier helped Jean Étienne Guettard compile his mineralogical map of France. He coined the term oxygène and identified atmospheric nitrogen. His extensive writings have been catalogued (see: Duveen, D I & Klickstein, H S (1954) A bibliography of the works of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier [etc], and other publications by the same authors). Lavoisier wrote Sur la combustion en général (1777) and Considerations sur la nature des acides (1778). His most influential book was Traitée Élémentaire de chemie [etc]. It has a chequered publishing history. Some of the first edition was bound as a single volume for the author in 1789, a few copies of which have been found. The formal publication of this edition in Paris was in two volumes. A second edition was published in the same year, 1789, but in three volumes with the third section devoted to Lavoisier's Méthod de nomenclature chimique. Eighteenth century translations were into English, German and Italian. There was also a pirated second edition in Paris in 1793, of which there were three printings. Lavoisier had married the 14-year-old Marie-Anne Paulze who worked with him, assisted at his experiments and drew them up for later publication. She published his autobiographical notes as Mémoires de chimie in 1805, after he was executed by revolutionary forces. The two had a wide circle of friends, including Benjamin Franklin and Francis Guillotin, the latter's invention being used to end Lavoisier's life on 8 May 1794. His widow subsequently married the American physicist Benjamin Thompson in 1805.
Lavoisier's new chemistry was championed in France by Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau (1737-1816) who advanced the use of chlorine as a disinfectant. He anonymously published Discours sur l'etat actuel de la jurisprudence (1768) in Paris, and at Dijon published Digressions académiques (1772), and Élémens de chymie théoretique et practique, three volumes (1777). Jean Antoine Chaptal, Comte de Chanteloup (1756-1832) gave the name nitrogen to Lavoisier's 'azote'. He promoted agricultural science, and became a government minister in 1800. His books include Tableau analytique du cours de chymie (1783) and Éléments de chimie (1790), both published at Montpelier. Claude Louis Berthollet (1748-1822), a Parisian professor who travelled with Napoleon to Egypt, wrote Recherches sur les lois de l'affinité (1801) Paris, and Essai de statique chimique (1803) Paris. He introduced chlorine bleaches, also discovering cyanide and hydrogen sulphide. A medical graduate, Antoine François de Fourcroy (1755-1809), turned to chemistry and was an inspirational lecturer and writer. Among his many books are Leçons Élémentaires d'histoire naturelle et de chimie (1792), Principes de chimie (1787), Analyse chimique de l'eau sulfureuse d'Enghein (1792), and Tableaux synoptiques de chimie [etc] (1800), all published in Paris. His greatest work was Système des connaisances chimiques [etc], (1801) published in five quarto volumes in Paris. A second edition appeared as eleven octavo volumes during the same year. A graduate of medicine who turned to chemistry was Pierre Joseph Macquer (1718-84) who compiled a dictionary of his discipline. The Dictionnaire de chymie [etc] was twice printed in Paris during 1766, with further editions in differing formats in 1777 and 1778. It was translated into Danish and English (1771), German (1768), and Italian (1783-84). He then published Élémens de chymie théoretique (1749, 1753, 1756), and Élémens de chymie pratique (1751, 1756), both published in Paris. They were translated into English for publication as Elements of the theory and practice of chemistry, two volumes (1758) London, with a second edition (1764) in three volumes, also at London, with a third edition (1768) published in Edinburgh. Further English editions appeared in 1775, London, and 1777, Edinburgh. It appeared in German (1768), Dutch (1773, 1775) and Russian (1774-75). Macquer and Antoine Baumé jointly wrote Plan d'un cours de chymie expérimentale et raisonnée avec un discours historique sur la chymie (1757), published in Paris.
In Britain, chemistry owed much to the independent spirit of Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), a minister of religion, teacher, and companion to Lord Shelburne, Earl of Lansdowne. He was interested in electricity, and studied the respiration of plants. In 1772 he isolated nitric oxide and hydrogen chloride, which he collected by downward displacement of mercury. He discovered the gases we now know as ammonia in 1773, sulphur dioxide in 1774, and oxygen in 1775. Priestley's work was prolific, largely because of the time allowed for individual study and experimentation by his wealthy patron. His first scientific publication was The history and present state of electricity, with original experiments (1767) London. It was followed by A familiar introduction to the study of electricity (1768) London, both of which went through several editions. Priestley's book on carbonated mineral waters was Directions for impregnating water with air, in order to communicate to it the peculiar spirit and virtues of Pyrmont water, and other mineral waters of a similar nature (1772) London, but his most important descriptive account of his experiments occurs in Experiments and observations on different kinds of air in three volumes (1774-77) London, which was abridged and re-published at Birmingham in 1790. It was followed by a further book covering the series, Experiments and observations relating to various branches of natural philosophy, with a continuation of the observations on air [etc] (1779) London, which was also re-issued at Birmingham. Later he published in London Experiments and observations relating to the analysis of atmospherical air (1796) and Considerations on the doctrine of phlogiston (1796) with a final salvo, The doctrine of phlogiston established, in 1800 .
Isaac Newton (1643-1727) accomplished his greatest work during the seventeenth century, though many of his works flourished during the eighteenth. His Principia, as it is known (the original title being Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematics) was originally published in 1687, but the second edition appeared in 1713 and the third in 1726, with 25 copies printed on large paper. The 1726 edition was frequently reprinted, and re-issued at Glasgow in 1871, with many foreign editions appeared during the eighteenth century. The popular English translation by Andrew Motte appeared in London in 1729, and facsimiles have been published since. Several editions also appeared of his Arithmetica universalis [etc] (1707) Cambridge, and The method of fluxions and infinite series [etc] (1736) London. Newton's Opticks, or, a treatise of the reflexions, refractions, inflexions, and colours of light [etc] was first published in 1704 in London, with further editions in 1717 and 1718. His collected works first appeared as Opera mathematica, philosophica et philologica [etc] in Switzerland, and in London as Opera quae exstant omnia [etc] (1779-85). For all his strength in science, it is intriguing to reflect on Newton's unabated interest in alchemy and spiritualism. Robert Smith (1689-1768) studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, where his cousin Roger Cotes (1682-1716) was Plumian Professor of Astronomy. Smith succeeded his cousin in this position. He wrote Harmonics (1748) and the Compleat system of opticks in four books (1738) both published at Cambridge. Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-77) was the Swiss German mathematician who first proved that p was an irrational number. He also published on the nature of light, in Photometria, sive de mensura et gradibus luminis, colorum et umbrae (1760) Ausburg. Pierre Bouger (1698-1758) was a professor of hydrology in Brittany, but published Essai d'optique sur la gradation de la lumière (1729), reissued posthumously as Traité d'optique sur la gradation de la lumière (1760). A visit to Peru in 1735 gave him an opportunity to measure the earth's meridian at the equator, described in Figure de la terre déterminée (1749) Paris.
The progress of science has always owed much to the independent investigator. The honourable Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) was retiring and shy, albeit eccentric; yet his work is confident, assured and prolific. Cavendish was wealthy, and devoted his time to the furtherance of the sciences. Many of his papers were published in Philosophical Transactions (the first, 'On factious airs', appeared in 1766). During the eighteenth century his output continued apace, and his papers were later published as collections. The first of these was Maxwell, J Clerk (1879) The electrical researches of the honourable Henry Cavendish FRS [etc], Cambridge, which included many accounts appearing for the first time in print. This was followed in the twentieth century by Thorpe, Sir Edward (1921) The scientific papers of the honourable Henry Cavendish FRS [etc], Cambridge. The assistant to Cavendish was Charles Blagden (1748-1820) who began his career as an army surgeon but became the Secretary to the Royal Society. His researches (like those of Cavendish) appear as papers in Philosophical Transactions. In the United States, Benjamin Franklin (1706-90) was the greatest innovator of the time; indeed he was one of the world figures of eighteenth century science. He began as a trainee printer, and in middle age became prominent in politics (he served as American ambassador to Paris). He was always interested in experimentation, of which his well-known capture of electricity by means of a kite flown in a thunderstorm is just one example. He was lucky not to have been killed; a Russian researcher died in an attempt to repeat the demonstration. The appearance of this unfortunate individual's internal organs after a post-mortem examination was widely discussed throughout Russia. Many of Franklin's papers appeared in Philosophical Transactions in London. Franklin corresponded with the British investigator Peter Collinson (1696-1768) who later became eminent as a botanist. The letters were published between 1751-53 as Experiments and observations made at Philadelphia in America. This was followed by Part II: Supplemental experiments (1753) and Part III: New experiments and observations (1754), all published in London. The second edition in English, published in two volumes, was New experiments and observations on electricity (1754) whilst the third edition, published in three volumes - with the third wrongly identified as the fourth on the title page - appeared between 1760-65. Further English editions appeared in 1769 and 1774. French editions were published in Paris (1753, 1756 and 1773), an Italian edition appeared in Milan in 1774, and the German translation was published in Leipzig dated 1758. There have been many modern works on Franklin, and these show his extensive correspondence with fellow-scientists. He collaborated with Lavoisier (q.v.) in research on explosives, the balloon, and animal magnetism31.
Research into electrical phenomena in France was greatly advanced by the work of the Abbé Jean Antoine Nollet (1700-70), who gave the Leyden jar its name. Nollet published Lettres sur l'Électricité dans lesquelles on examine les découverts [etc] (1753) Paris, of which an Italian version had been published in Venice in 1747. He also wrote Recherches sur les causes particulière des phénomenes électrique [etc] (1754), Essai sur l'électricité des corps (1746) and L'Art des expériences sur . . . la construction et l'usage des instruments [etc] in three volumes (1770), all published in Paris. Charles Augustin Coulomb (1736-1806) is known for the eponymous unit of electrical charge. His work on electricity was facilitated by his invention of the torsion balance, which he used to measure the strength of attraction and repulsion between charged bodies. His Théorie des machines simples was presented to the Académie des Sciences in 1784, a new edition being published in Paris in 1820. Francis Hauksbee the elder ( ?-1713) is a vague figure in British research on electricity. He was mentioned by Newton in correspondence, and carried out experiments on friction-induced static electricity. He also invented a serviceable vacuum-pump. Hauksbee published a collection of papers in Physico-mechanical experiments on various subjects (1709) with a further posthumous edition in 1719. Stephen Gray (1667-1736) carried out crucial work on electrical conductivity and insulation. He is regarded as the father of electrical communication. Little is known of his life, though he became a pensioner of the London Charterhouse. His 21 papers were published in Philosophical Transactions. John Freke (1688-1756), was a surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London (see: Chalstrey, John (1957) The life and works of John Freke (1688-1756), St Bartholomew's Hospital Journal, 61: 85-89, 108-112). Freke wrote An essay to show the cause of electricity and why some things are non-electricable [etc] (1748) London, which ran to three editions. It was later expanded and reprinted as A treatise on the nature and property of fire (1752), also published in London. The popularity of electricity, as a topic of study, was widespread. In Italy, Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) noticed a frog's leg move convulsively during dissection with a scalpel. He concluded, with some presumption, that 'in the animal itself there was an in-dwelling of electricity'. He communicated his observations to the Bologna Academy of Science in 1791, and printed the tract in Bologna that same year as De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari. A German translation was published in Prague as Abhandlung über die Krafte der thierischen Elektrizität auf die Bewegung der Muskeln (1793). The state of optics in Britain is well covered by the great book of Robert Smith (1689-1768), Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Plumian Professor of Astronomy. The title-page of his wide-ranging Complete system of opticks in four books [etc], published in 1738 in Cambridge, also describes him as 'Master of Mechanicks to His Majesty'. This became perhaps the most influential textbook on optical sciences published during the period32.
Although astronomy occupied many of the greatest eighteenth-century minds, surprisingly few major books devoted to the subject were published. John Bradley (1693-1762) was a friend of Halley and Newton, and in Philosophical Transactions he published accounts of comets and the aberration of light. They were collected together and published as Rigaud, S P (1832) Miscellaneous works and correspondence of the Rev. James Bradley, Oxford. Bradley was Astronomer Royal 1742-62. In 1763, the British mariner's guide was published by Nevil Maskelyne (1732-1811), and he was appointed Astronomer Royal in 1765. He launched the Nautical almanac in 1767: it is still produced annually. He was fascinated by eclipses, and later measured the lateral deflection of a plumb-line caused by mountains. This work allowed him to calculate that the density of the earth lay between 4.56-4.97 that of water (the modern value is 5.52). Thomas Wright (1711-86) was a follower of Newton. A native of Durham, he published a major work on navigation, Pannauticon (1734) which has since virtually disappeared. His Universal vicissitude of seasons appeared in 1737, of which only one copy is known. Wright's later books included The use of globes (1740), a popular book on astronomy entitled Clavis coelestis [etc] (1742), Louthiana (1749) on the antiquities of the Irish county of Louth. His Original theory or new hypothesis of the universe [etc] (1750) emobodied a revolutionary theory on the nature of the Milky Way. It was first published in London, with a second edition being published in the United States in 1837. Wright's final book was The longitude discover'd without use of graduated instruments (1773). Thomas Wright's idea influenced the philosopher Emmanual Kant (1724-1804) who wrote Allgemeine Naturgesischte und Theorie des Himmels [etc] (1755) published in Konigsberg and Leipzig. Later editions appeared in 1798, 1890 and 1908. An English translation of Kant's book was published in Glasgow (1900) as Kant's Cosmogony, as in his essay on the theory of the heavens. With introduction, appendices and a portrait of Thomas Wright of Durham .
From Scotland came James Ferguson (1710-76), son of a labourer, and himself at one time a shepherd. He was initially self-taught, and was much excited by watching his father use a lever when raising the fallen roof of their cottage. After being placed in service he was found drawing maps of the heavens using beads on a string, and was given tuition by his master's butler. Later he supported himself a portrait painter, and was introduced to the Secretary of the Royal Society because of the success of his orbital models. From 1768 King George III regularly invited him to discuss scientific matters. Ferguson lectured widely in London and published many popular works on astronomy. These include: The astronomical rotula (1741), which was extensively reprinted; Description and use of the astronomical rotula (1775) and Astronomy explained upon Sir Isaac Newton's principles (1756) which went through new editions and reprints until 1821. The best known of eighteenth century astronomers were the German-born Friederich Wilhelm Herschel (1738-1822) whose co-worker on astronomy was his sister Caroline Lucretia (1750-1848). William, as he became known after moving to England in 1757, trained in music. In 1766 he was appointed organist and music master at the Octagon Chapel in Bath. He was an active performer and composer, and carried out astronomical research in his spare time. His sister Caroline was believed by their father Isaac to possess great talents, but his wife Anna would have none of it, and insisted all her daughters embarked on a strenuous routine of manual domestic duties. In England, however, Caroline was encouraged by her brother and she made many important discoveries in astronomy. Her Catalogue of stars (1798) printed for the Royal Society in London, is a milestone. William's greatest discovery was published as Account of a comet (1781), also printed for the Royal Society. The 'comet' turned out to be the planet Uranus, the first of the outer planets to be discovered with the aid of a telescope. Caroline, in truth one of the most diligent of eighteenth-century astronomical research workers, is usually down-graded to the role of assistant (or even omitted altogether) in many reference works on astronomical science. There are several French astronomers of the period whose works have endured. Nicholas Louis de la Caille (1713-62) led an expedition from Paris to the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, and published two major works in Paris during 1763: Journal historique du voyage fait au Cap de Bonne-Ésperance, and his influential Stellarum australium catalogus (coelium astrale stelliferum). His major book was Astronomiae fundamenta (1757) Paris, with the positions of over 400 of the brightest stars. De la Caille was perhaps the greatest of all French astronomers . A co-worker, Joseph Jérôme le Français de la Lande (1732-1807), was sent to Berlin to carry out observations correlated with those of de la Caille in the southern hemisphere. De la Lande's Traité d'astronomie (1764) went into several editions, whilst his masterpiece entitled Histoire céleste Français (1802) catalogues over 47,000 stars. The most prominent eighteenth-century astronomer in France was a peasant farmer's son from Normandy, Pierre Simon (1749-1827), marquis de Laplace. He showed mathematical talents at military academy in Beaumont, and soon moved to Paris where d'Alembert recommended him for a professorship at the École Militaire. He published his celebrated nebular hypothesis in Exposition du système du monde (1796) and then produced an immense five-volume work, Mécanique céleste (1799-1825). His Oeuvres complètes cover fourteen volumes and were published between 1878 and 1912. Bernard le Bovier de Fontanelle (1657-1757) published on astronomy in the seventeenth century, but his eighteenth century biographies of French scientists are among his most valuable bequests to the modern scholar. The 69 Éloges were published in Paris as Histoire de l'Académie Royal des Sciences, avec les Mémoires, [etc] (1744) in two volumes. A selection was published in Paris in 1883. [See also: McKie, Douglas (1957) Bernard le Bovier de Fontanelle, FRS (1657-1757), Notes & Records of the Royal Society of London, 12: 193-200]. Rudjer Josip Boskovic (1711-87) was born in Ragusa (then in the territory of Venice, now Dubrovnic, Croatia). He is latterly known as Roger Joseph Boscovitch, and produced over 2,000 letters and 180 manuscripts on astronomy, philosophy, optics and mechanics. Boscovitch developed theorems for calculating the day length of a planet based on three observations of its surface feature, and for calculating a planet's orbit based on three observations of its position. He was also a pioneer of atomism, proposing that matter was composed of point-centres of force. He went to Rome in 1725, and published his major work Philosophiae naturalis theoria redacta ad unicam legem vivium in natura existentium in 1758 at Vienna . In London, a prominent mathematician named John Harris (c1666-1719), wrote several collections of sermons and popular books on geography and astronomy. He is best known for a remarkable state-of-the-art compilation, Lexicon technicum, or, an universal English dictionary of arts and sciences [etc] (1704). It was printed in London as a magnificent folio volume, published by subscription. Supplementary volumes appeared in 1710 and 1744.
The Swiss family Bernoulli produced several great mathematicians . Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) was a native of Basle and systematised the Leibnitz calculus. His principle work was published in Basle as Ars conjectandi (1713). His brother was Johann (or Jean) Bernoulli (1667-1748) who succeeded Jacob in the chair of mathematics at Basle, and whose Lectiones mathematicae de methodo integralium (written in 1691-92) was published in 1742. His second son was Daniel Bernoulli (1700-82) who was professor of mathematics at St Petersburg before returning to Basle. His Hydrodynamica (1738) was published at Strasbourg. A pupil of Johann Bernoulli became perhaps the greatest mathematician of the era. He was Leonhard Euler (1707-83) who travelled in Russia and Germany. He lost the sight of his right eye through the use of a telescope on the sun, but when he became totally blind in old age found his mathematical work went on unabated. He was prodigiously able to undertake complex mental calculations. Euler introduced the use of p in geometry, i for imaginary numbers and S for summation. There were many eponymous introductions: Euler's constant, Euler's equations, Euler's line and Euler's variables. He advanced trigonometry and brought differential calculus to the form we know today. Euler's Methodus inveniendi lineas curvas (1744) published in Lausanne reveals him as a gifted expositor. His protégé was Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813) who had taught himself mathematics as a youth and was appointed Professor of mathematics at the artillery school in Turin when just 19 years old. He had conceived the heart of his great work Mécanique analytique by 1755, and sent the work to Euler, who wrote back expressing his delight and held back his own publications so that Lagrange could take precedence. The Mécanique analytique was completed by 1782, but not published until 1788. Lagrange, who said he was greatly influenced as a child by the work of Edmund Halley (1656-1742), went on to persuade the French commission to adopt a base of 10, and not 12, for future standards. In this manner he became the father of the metric system. A native of Toulouse, Adrian Marie Legendre (1752-1833) wrote on astronomy and mechanics as well as mathematics, his main work being on ellipsoids. His Éléments de geométrie (1794) and the Essai sur la théorie des nombres (1798) were published in Paris. The first decades of the nineteenth century saw a continuing output of his influential books on pure and applied mathematics. Meanwhile, Jean Etienne Montluca (1725-99) from Lyons, documented the history of mathematics at Paris. First he published Histoire des recherches sur la quadrature du cercle (1754) and then his two-volume Histoire des mathématiques (1785) which was reissued in a new edition as four volumes between 1799-1805. Probability was intensively studied by Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754) who wrote The doctrine of chances, or a method of calculating the probability of events in play. The first edition appeared in 1718, with further editions in 1738 and 1756. He also wrote Miscellanea analytica de seriebus et quadraturis (1730) which appeared in later editions with supplemental pages. A pioneering survey of British mathematicians from 1714 to 1840, found over 2,000 names recognised as significant. Eva Taylor's 1966 book, The mathematical practitioners of Hanoverian England 1714-1840, Cambridge, gives brief bibliographies of 2282 British mathematicians. See also: Wallis, R V and Wallis, P J eds., (1993) Index of British mathematicians, Part 3, 1701-1800, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Brook Taylor (1685-1731) founded the calculus of infinite variables, and in 1708 deduced a solution to the problem of centre of oscillation. On its publication in May 1714 his priority was unjustly disputed by the elder Johann Bernoulli. In 1715 he published Methodus incrementorum directa et universa, which announced 'Taylor's theorem' solving the expansions of functions of a single variable in infinite series. The profound importance of his development was not fully appreciated until Joseph-Louis La Grange (1736-1813) drew attention to its significance in 1772. Thomas Simpson (1710-61) applied mathematics to problems of astronomy and physics in his New treatise on fluxions (1737). He was also to publish Nature and laws of chance (1740) and Doctrine of annuities and reversions (1742). Colin Maclaurin (1698-1746) was a Scottish prodigy who became Professor of mathematics at the Marischal College, Aberdeen, when aged nineteen, and later moved to Edinburgh University. His books included Geometria organica (1720), Treatise on fluxions, in two volumes (1742), and two posthumous books, Treatise on Algebra (1748) and An account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy (1748). Mathematical research (initially into elliptical integrals) brought a surveyor from Peterborough to fellowship of the Royal Society in 1766. He was John Landen (1719-90), described as the 'English D'Alembert', whose books included Mathematical lucubrations (1755)  and Discourse concerning the residual analysis (1758). The residual analysis (1764) was intended to be in several parts; in the event only Book I was published by public subscription. Finally he published Mathematical memoires [etc], Volume1 appearing in 1780, and Volume2 being delivered to the author's death-bed on 14 January 1790. He died the next day. He was not personally popular; indeed his private papers were sold for use by the shopkeepers of Peterborough, rather than being conserved. Landen was known to the public through his articles in The Ladies' Diary, a periodical founded by John Tipper of Coventry in 1704. Articles on the sciences for women were far more popular in earlier centuries than they are today. Descriptive geometry was advanced by Gaspard Monge (1746-1818), a native of Beaune who eventually became Professor at the École Polytechnique in Paris. His work appeared as Géometrie descriptive (1798). Mention must also be made of the philosopher-economist Adam Smith (1723-1790) for his application of scientific principles and mathematical concepts to the problems of an industrialised society. He was brought up by a mother who spent much time educating his mind, and was studying Latin by the age of ten. He remained very close to his mother, greatly valuing her early influence. Born in Scotland, and educated at University in Glasgow and Edinburgh, Smith formed a close alliance with another Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) with whom he cooperated until Hume's death. Smith's first great book was the Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759). His analytical work An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations was published in two volumes (1776) with a second edition in 1778. The third revised edition in 1784 was published in three volumes. Other editions followed, the ninth marking the end of the century. This publication marked the launch of a science of economics.
The nineteenth century was to see a breathtaking maturation of these new sciences. Descriptive science developed to a high degree, complex life histories were studied and the splendour of chemistry was brought together into a conceptual whole. Observational microscopy offered images which are rarely equalled in present-day studies. The institutionalisation of science began to reveal the extent to which personal self-perpetuation would come to predominate, and the ultra-specialised technician would introduce schisms that kept the disciplines apart. Our current era has lost sight of the free-wheeling insights that advance our knowledge, for much of our so-called science is technology with social pretensions. True science cannot be restrained within disciplinary boundaries. The interdisciplinary sciences flourished wondrously in the eighteenth century, as they need to do again in the twenty-first. By a perusal of these historic books, with all their quirks and foibles, we may yet learn lessons that can equip today's workers in the fields of science for the urgent problems they will need to tackle tomorrow.
Reference may be made to the Dictionary of National Biography (1975) Oxford, Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th edn (1974-95) Chicago; to Fox, C., Porter, R., & Wokler, R., (1995) Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth century domains, London and los Angeles; Bruno, L. C. (1987) The Tradition of Science, Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress; also to the Hutchinson Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Oxford, 1994, though many distinguished individuals are curiously omitted from the last.
For a survey of books on popular aspects medicine, see: Porter, Roy, ed., (1992) The popularization of medicine 1650-1850, London/New York.
See: Frängsmyr, Tore; Heilbron, J L, and Rider, R E, eds., (1990), The quantifying spirit in the eighteenth century, Berkeley/Los Angeles, also: Cunningham, Andrew and Jardine, Nicholas, eds., (1990) Romanticism and the sciences, Cambridge/New York.
'The individuals that are ranked into one sort, called by one common name, and so received as being of one species,' wrote John Locke (1632-1704), An Essay concerning Human Understanding, published in 1690. Twenty editions of this essay, subsequently revised and enlarged, were published by the end of the eighteenth century.
Linnaeus published several works, apart from those on taxonomy. All are sought-after by collectors. Bibliotheca botanica (1736), published in Amsterdam, includes Fundamenta botanica, pars 1, with separate pagination and a dedicated title-page. It was reprinted as Bibliotheca et fundamenta botanica (1968) Munich. Philosophia botanica (1751) is a textbook of taxonomy, setting out the Linnaean methodology, with some volumes bearing a title-page from Amsterdam [see Gédès, Michel, (1968) L'Édition originale de la Philosophia botanica de Linné, Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 4: 385-389]. Flora Lapponica (1737) records the botanical investigations of his Lapland journey of 1732. Linnaeus' diary of this voyage, then in the possession of J E Smith, was published in an English translation as Lachesis Lapponica (1811). Hortus Cliffortianus (1738) describes the garden plants of George Clifford, a merchant with whom Linnaeus stayed in the Netherlands, whilst the Flora Suecica (1745) and Fauna Suecica (1746) list methodically the species found in Sweden. Critica Botanica (1737) was published in English by the Ray Society in 1938. The Genera Plantarum, 5th edn (1754) was published in facsimile, with annotations, in Historiae Naturalis Classica (1961) edited by William Stearn.
Bryk, P., (1954) Bibliographia Linnaeana ad Genera Plantarum pertinens, Taxon 3: 174-183.
Hulth, Johan Marcus (1907-) Bibliographica Linnaeana [etc], Uppsala;
A catalogue of the works of Linnaeus issued in commemoration of the 250th anniversary of the birthday of Carolus Linnaeus 1707-78 (1957) Stockholm;
Williams, Terrence (1964) A check-list of Linnaeus 1735-1835 in the University of Kansas Libraries, Lawrence;
Soulsby, B. H. (1933) A catalogue of the works of Linnaeus (and publications more immediately relating thereto) preserved in the libraries of the British Museum (Bloomsbury) and the British Museum (Natural History) (South Kensington) 2nd edn, London.
Blunt, W. (1971) The Compleat Naturalist, a life of Linnaeus, London.
Frängsmyr, Tore (1993) Linnaeus, the man and his work, Uppsala. Revised edition (1994) Canton, Mass: Science History Publications.
The library of Linnaeus and his original specimen collections are preserved in the Linnean Society of London.
Staff of Carnegie Institute of Technology (1963-64) Adanson: the bicentennial of Michel Adanson's 'Familles des Plantes', Pittsburgh.
See: Stevens, Peter F (1994) The development of biological systematics: Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, Nature, and the natural system, New York.
Anker, Jean, (1951) The early history of Flora Danica, Libri, I: 334-350. See also the same author's Otto Friderich Müller's Zoologia Danica (1950) Library Research Monograph vol 1, Copenhagen University Library.
See: Sarmiento, F J P (1988) La ilusiôn quebrada: Botánica, sanidad y política científica en la España Ilustrada, Barcelona/Madrid, also: Lozoya, Xavier (1984) Plantes y luces en México, la Real expediciôn cientíca a Nueva España (1787-1803), Barcelona, and: Pérez, Joaquín and Tascôn, Ignacio eds., (1990) Ciencia, técnica y estado en la España Ilustrada, Madrid.
A review of encyclopedias of the period may be found in: Kafker, Frank A, ed., (1994) Notable encyclopedias of the late eighteenth century, Oxford/Paris.
Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820) was a powerful figure of the era. He made few original discoveries, and was not drawn to publishing, but facilitated a great expansion in the natural sciences. For one of many recent sources, see: O'Brian, Patrick (1993) Joseph Banks, a life, Boston, Mass.
See: Keevil, J J (1933) William Anderson, master surgeon, Annals of medical History 2nd series, 5: 511-524. Reference may also be made to: Smith, Bernard W (1992) Imagining the Pacific, in the wake of the Cook voyages, New Haven, Conn/London.
Ford, Brian J., (1994) Images of Science, a history of scientific illustration, pp 106-7, London & New York.
For publications on Captain James Cook see also:
New South Wales Library (1928) Bibliography of Captain James Cook RN, FRS, circumnavigator, Sydney.
Muir, John (1939) The life and achievements of Captain James Cook [etc], London & Glasgow.
Roberts, Stanley (1947) Captain Cook's voyages, a bibliography of French translations 1772-1800, Journal of Documentation, 3: 160-176.
Holmes, Sir Maurice (1949) Captain James Cook, Endeavour, 8: 11-17.
Holmes, Sir Maurice (1952) Captain Cook RN FRS, a bibliographical excursion, London.
Thrower, W R (1951) Contributions to medicine of Captain James Cook FRS RN, Lancet, II: 215-219.
Spence, Sydney (1960) Captain James Cook RN (1728-79), a bibliography of his voyages, to which is added other works relating to his life, conduct and nautical achievements, Mitcham.
Stevenson, Allan (1961) Catalogue of botanical books in the collection of Rachel McMasters Miller Hunt (II) Printed books 1701-1800, Pittsburgh, Hunt Botanical Library, lists 764 original botanical works of the period plus 62 facsimiles.
Curtis published many other titles, including:
Instructions for collecting and preserving insects, particularly moths and butterflies (1771)
Linnaeus' Fundamenta entomologiae [etc] (1772)
Linnaeus' system of botany (1777)
Short history of the brown-tail moth (1782) [reprinted in facsimile as the first of the series Classica Entomologica (1969)]
General observations on the advantage which may result from the introduction of the seeds of our best grasses (1787)
A catalogue of the plants growing wild in the environs of London (1774) was published anonymously, and it has been suggested that this may also have been written by Curtis.
Lamarck was not the sole proponent of such theories. See: Corsi, Pietro (1988) The age of Lamarck - evolutionary theories in France 1790-1830, Berkeley/Los Angeles.
The agricultural sciences were well documented during the century. The first spongiform encephalopathy to be recognised, scrapie, was well documented in 1759 in a paper by Leopold in Germany, heralding current preoccupations with bovine spongiform encephalopathy [see Ford, Brian J (1996) BSE: The Facts, London]. From Edinburgh in 1788 appeared Thomas Thopham's A new compendious system on several diseases incident to cattle [etc], which gives a wide-ranging summary of diseases in cattle and horses. A catalogue of British authors in agriculture was published in: Weston, Richard (1773) Tracts on practical agriculture and gardening [etc], second edition, London. The first edition had appeared in 1769, but lacked the valuable authors' list. An analysis of agricultural economics was published as Young, Arthur (1770) Farmer's guide to hiring and stocking farms, London.
See: McNeil, Maureen (1987) Under the banner of science, Erasmus Darwin and his age, Manchester. It should be noted that the concept of 'natural selection' was introduced by neither of the Darwins. The publication which introduced this concept was Wells, William Charles (1818) Two essays: one upon single vision with two eyes . . . and an account of a female of the white race of mankind [etc], London.
Wolff, C F, De formatione intestinonum (1768-69) Novi comentarii academiae scientarium imperialis Petropolitanae, 12: 403-507; 13: 478-530. These papers were translated by Johann Friedrich Meckel (1761-1833) and published as Über die Bildung des Darmkanals in bebruteten Hühnchen (1812) Halle.
The first two-volume work on psychiatry was also published during this century. Thomas Arnold's Observations on the nature, kinds, causes, and prevention, of insanity, was published at Leicester in 1782-86. It is also noteworthy for establishing the custom of providing references to quoted literature. For reviews of publishing in psychiatry during this period see: Porter, Roy (1987) Mind-forg'd manacles - a history of madness in England from the Restoration to the Regency, Cambridge, Mass; and: Chiarugi, Vincenzo (1987) On insanity and its classification (translated by George Mora), Canton, Mass.
Renard's drawings were authoritatively dismissed as 'crudely drawn and barbarously coloured' in B. Dean (1923) Bibliography of Fishes, volume 3, New York. However, when are published in juxtaposition with more realistic images, as in Hiroshi Aramata's book Fish of the World (1990) New York, resemblances can be discerned between Renard's illustrations and the species they are intended to represent, although most are grossly caricatured. In a comprehensive assessment, Theodore Pietsch now concludes that the book has scientific merit, for almost all the portrayals can be identified. The work, published by the John Hopkins University Press in 1995, is entitled Fishes, Crayfishes and Crabs, Louis Renard's Natural History of the Rarest Curiosities of the Seas of the Indies. Volume 1 retells the background to the book whilst Volume 2 is a facsimile in colour, showing Renard's distorted view of reality at its most vivid.
See Clifford Dobell (1932) Antony van Leeuwenhoek and his 'little animals', London; Ford, Brian J (1985) Single Lens, story of the simple microscope, London and New York; and Leeuwenhoek Legacy (1992), Bristol and London.
See, for example:
Andry de Boisregard, N (1700) De la génération des vers dans le corps de l'homme [etc], Paris.
Corti, Bonaventura (1774) Osservazione microscopische sulla Tremella e sulla circolazione dell fluido [etc], Lucca.
Eichorn, J C (1775) Beyträge zur Naturgeschichte der kleinsten Wasser-Thiere [etc], Danzig.
von Gleichen, W F [called Russworm] (1778) Abhandlung über die Saamen und Infusionthierchen und über die Erzeugung [etc], Nürnberg.
Ledermüller, Martin F (1760-65) Mikroskopische Gemüths- und Augen-Ergötzung, Beyreuth.
Lesser, F C (1738) Insecto-theologia oder . . . Versuch wie ein Mensch durch Betrachtung deren sonst wenig geachteten Insecten [etc], Leipzig.
See also: Roger, Jacques (1989) Buffon, un philosophe au Jardin du Roi, Paris.
Findlay, David (1990) The Hunterian Society, a catalogue of its records and collections [etc], London. See also LeFanu, William (1946) John Hunter: a list of his books, London.
See: Hale, R B and Coyle, T (1988), Albinus on anatomy, New York.
See also: Stewart, M A, ed., (1990) Studies in the philosophy of the Scottish Enlightement, Oxford.
Challinor, J, (1953-54) The early progress of British geology, Annals of Science, 9: 124-153; and 10: 1-19, 107-148.
Ford, Brian J., (1971) The March of Science, History of the English Speaking Peoples, 6: 2592-2595, London: Purnell, 6 January. A review of the proponents of each side is in: Schneider, Hans-Georg (1992) Paradigmenwechsel und Generationenkonflikt, eine Fallstudie zur Struktur wißenschaftlicher Revolutionen, Frankfurt am Main. See also: Anderson, R G W, and Lawrence, Christopher, eds., (1987) Science, medicine and dissent, Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), London.
See: Cohen, I Bernard (1990) Benjamin Franklin's science, Cambridge, Mass/London.
See also: Hall, Rupert (1993) All was light: an introduction to Newton's optics, Oxford.
See also: Gulyga, Arsenij (1987) Immanuel Kant, his life and thought (translated by Marijan Despalatovic), Boston/Basel/Stuttgart, and: Melnick, Arthur (1989) Space, time and thought in Kant, Dordrecht/Boston/London. The development of physical astronomy during the German Enlightenment has been the subject of scholarly research. See: Baasner, Rainer (1987) Das Lob der Sternkunst, Astronomie in der deutschen Aufklärung, Göttingen.
See: Evans, David S (1992) Lacaille, astronomer, traveler; with a new translation of his journal, Tucson, Ariz.
See: Whyte, L.L., editor (1961) Joseph Boscovich S.J., F.R.S., 1711-87: studies of his life and work on the 250th anniversary of his birth, London.
Also: Dadic, Zarko (1987) Rudjer Boscovic, Zagreb, and: Supek, Ivan (1989) Rudjer Boscovic, vizionar u prijelomima filosofije, znanosti i drustva, Zagreb.
The catalogue of family members distinguished in mathematics is: Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705), Johann Bernoulli (1667-1748), Nicholas Bernoulli (1685-1759), Nicholas Bernoulli (1695-1726), Daniel Bernoulli (1700-82), Johann Bernoulli (1710-90), Johann Bernoulli (1744-1807) and Jacob Bernoulli (1759-89), who jointly left over 7,500 letters.
A lucubration: literally, study by artificial [in this case candle- or lamp-] light; in general useage, nocturnal studies.
Acknowledgements:Among the many individuals whose advice I sought over the years, and to whom or to whose memory I remain most grateful, are:
William Stearn, Rupert Hall, Gavin Bridson, Gina Douglas, Nigel Cooper, William le Fanu, Desmond King Hele, Norman Robinson, Howard Lenhoff, Gordon Chancellor, Derek de Solla Price, and Peter-Hans Kylstra. Among many libraries where I have worked around the world, I particularly acknowledge the help of the Cambridge University Library, the Library of Congress, the Science Museum, London, the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, the Royal Society and, of course, the Linnean Society where it my honour to serve as Zoological Secretary and Honorary Surveyor of Scientific Instruments.
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